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Mooladhanam: A Classic Malayalam Novel on Socialism and Revolution
Mooladhanam (The Origin of Capital) is a Malayalam novel written by K. Damodaran in 1957. It is considered one of the first and most influential Marxist novels in Malayalam literature. The novel depicts the lives and struggles of the working class in Kerala during the 1940s and 1950s, when the communist movement was gaining momentum in the state.
The novel follows the protagonist, Raghavan, a young factory worker who joins the communist party and becomes involved in various agitations and strikes against the exploitation and oppression of the capitalists and landlords. He also falls in love with Sumathi, a progressive woman who supports his ideals and aspirations. However, their relationship faces many challenges and conflicts due to the differences in their class backgrounds and social norms.
The novel also portrays the diverse perspectives and ideologies of various characters, such as Raghavan's father, who is a loyal servant of a rich landlord; Raghavan's brother, who is a nationalist and a Gandhian; Raghavan's friend, who is a trade union leader and a reformist; and Raghavan's enemy, who is a police officer and a collaborator of the British colonial rule.
Mooladhanam is a powerful and realistic depiction of the socio-economic and political conditions of Kerala during a crucial period of its history. It exposes the contradictions and injustices of the feudal-capitalist system and advocates for a socialist revolution as the only solution. The novel also explores the themes of class struggle, class consciousness, alienation, exploitation, oppression, resistance, solidarity, love, sacrifice, and human dignity.
Mooladhanam is widely regarded as a masterpiece of Malayalam literature and a landmark in the history of Indian literature. It has been translated into several languages and has inspired many writers and activists. The novel has also been adapted into a film, a play, and a television series.
The novel is divided into three parts, each corresponding to a different phase of the communist movement in Kerala. The first part, titled \"The Origin of Capital\", depicts the emergence and growth of the capitalist class and the exploitation of the workers and peasants. The second part, titled \"The Origin of Revolution\", depicts the rise and spread of the communist ideology and the formation of the communist party. The third part, titled \"The Origin of Socialism\", depicts the climax and aftermath of the historic Punnapra-Vayalar uprising, a peasant revolt that was brutally suppressed by the British and the Travancore state.
The novel is written in a simple and lucid style, with a blend of realism and symbolism. The novel uses various literary devices, such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, irony, satire, allegory, and metaphor, to convey its message and critique. The novel also incorporates various historical and cultural references, such as the Quit India movement, the Indian National Army, the Malabar rebellion, the Sree Narayana Guru movement, the Kerala renaissance, and the folk songs and legends of Kerala.
Mooladhanam is not only a novel but also a manifesto and a guide for the socialist revolution. It is a novel that challenges and inspires its readers to question and transform their society and themselves. It is a novel that celebrates the spirit and courage of the working class and their struggle for freedom and justice. aa16f39245